DescribeNZ

a website for all New Zealand cataloguers

International Standards and the National Union Catalogue

Why Cataloguing Standards

Types of Library Standards



1. Library Standards for Exchanging Catalogue Records

Description: The exchange of catalogue records between libraries, either as individual records or as a batch process, requires a common language to encode the cataloguing information. MARC (Machine Readable Cataloguing) is the most common standard used by libraries.

Principle: Best practice is to use a scheme that creates efficiency in the exchange of library catalogue records.


Library standards for exchanging catalogue records

MARC21 for bibliographic records
XMLMARC21

MARC21 Lite 

 

National Union Catalogue accept

MARC21 for bibliographic records

 

National Union Catalogue  recommendations 

Quick Guide for minimum level bibliographic records

Quick Guide for Abbreviated Records 


2. Describing library resources and access standards for libraries

Description: Providing a standard way to transcribe and describe attributes of library resources creates catalogue records that are consistent in form.  The content standard for libraries, "the Anglo American Cataloguing Rules (AACR") provides a consistient way to transcribe an author when used as a accent point. e.g. <last name, first name>. 

Principle: Best practice is use the standard designed for use in the construction of library catalogues.

 

Library standards for describing and access

AACR 2

RDA Resource Description Access  

 

National Union Catalogue accept

AACR2

 

National Union Catalogue  recommendations 

First level of description


3. Controlled Vocabularies

Description: Controlled vocabularies provide an "authorised" terrm when it it is possible to have variant spellings, and concepts, to describe an entity ...

Principle: Best practice is to use a controlled list of names e.g. LCNA, Iwi-Hapū Names List

 

Library standards for controlled vocabularies e.g.:

  • Subjects

the following are examples: 

LCSH

MeSH

Nga Upoko Tukutuku / Māori Subject Headings

Getty Art History Information Program

...more

  • Names

LCNA


National Union Catalogue accept

  • Subject headings

Accept all subject headings from a controlled list, for example all those recommended at http://www.loc.gov/marc/relators/relasour.html can
be used in the National Union Catalogue

  • Names

The National Union Catalogue prefer the form of heading established in the Library of Congress Name Authorities (LCNA) found at http://authorities.loc.gov/ 

 

National Union Catalogue recommendations

  • Subject headings

Subject headings are not mandatory for bibliographic records though their use is encouraged

  • Names

Name authority records are not mandatory for bibliographic records though their use is strongly recommended.


4. Classification Schemes 

Description:  to do

Principle: Best practice is to use a standard classification scheme e.g. Dewey, Library of Congress Classification 

 

Library standards for classification schemes

LC Classification

DDC

Sears

UDC

Moys

NLM

 

National Union Catalogue accept

Accept all published classification schemes

 

National Union Catalogue recommendations

Classification schemes are not mandatory for bibliographic records - but do not delete them from the record


5. Holdings

Description: Holdings statements describe the location of an item or similar group of items of a library. The New Zealand National Union Catalogue contains the holdings of more than 280 New Zealand libraries.

Principle: Best practice is to use the standard designed for use in the description of holdings statements.

Library standards for holdings

MARC21 Format for Holdings Data

ANSI/NISO Z39.71 Holdings
Statements for Bibliographic Items
;

 

National Union Catalogue acceptNational Union Catalogue recommendations

MARC21 Format for Holdings Data

ANSI/NISO Z39.71 Holdings
Statements for Bibliographic Items
;

 

National Union Catalogue recommendations

Quick guide for holdings records

  • single part items
  • continuing resources